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Signed copy of Dr. Sam Ridgway’s book, Dolphin Doctor. NMMF decal and more...$500/year

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Invitation for two to NMMF's annual event. Signed copy of Dr. Sam Ridgway's book, Dolphin Doctor and more... $1000/year

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The National Marine Mammal Foundation believes that it is important to publish our research in peer-reviewed, scientific literature. Since the NMMF’s inception in 2007, our scientists and veterinarians have published over 50 articles in bioacoustics, biology & conservation, and clinical & translational research.



Branstetter, B. K., Trickey, J. S., Bakhtiari, K., Black, A., Aihara, H. and Finneran, J. J. 2013.   Auditory masking patterns in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  133: 1811-1818.

Branstetter, B. K., Black, A. and Bakhtiari, K.  2013.  Discrimination of mixed-directional whistles by a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  134:  2274-2285.

Branstetter, B. K., Trickey, J. S., Aihara, H., Finneran, J. J. and Liberman, T. R.  2013.Time and frequency metrics related to auditory masking of a 10 kHz tone in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  134: 4556-4565.

Finneran, J. J., and Branstetter, B. K.  2013.  “Effects of noise on sound perception in marine mammals.” In: H. Brumm (Ed.), Animal communication and noise. Animal Signals and Communication. Springer-Vergal, Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 273-308.

Finneran, J. J., Mulsow, J. and Houser, D. S.  2013.  Auditory evoked potentials in a bottlenose dolphin during moderate-range echolocation tasks.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  134: 4532-4547.

Finneran, J. J., Mulsow, J. and Houser, D. S.  2013. Using the auditory steady-state response to assess temporal dynamics of hearing sensitivity during bottlenose dolphin echolocation.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  135: 3913-3917.  doi: 10.1121/1.4823842.

Houser, D. S., Martin, S. W. and Finneran, J. J.  2013.  Exposure amplitude and repetition affect bottlenose dolphin behavioral responses to simulated mid-frequency sonar signals.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.  443: 123-133.

Houser, D. S., Martin, S. W. and Finneran, J. J.  2013.  Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals.  Marine Environmental Research.  91: 268-278.  doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.10.007.

Mulsow, J. and Reichmuth, C.  2013.  The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  133: 579-586.

Reichmuth, C., Holt, M. M., Mulsow, J., Sills, J. M. and Southall, B. J.  2013.  Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds.  Journal of Comparative Physiology A.  DOI 10.1007/s00359-013-0813-y

Mulsow J, Houser DS, Finneran JJ (In Press) Underwater psychophysical audiogram of a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

Ridgway SH, lsberry WR, Blackwood DJ, Kamolnick T, Todd M, Carder DA, Chaplin C, Cranford TW (2012) Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131:593-598.

Cranford TW, Elsberry WR, Van Bonn WG, Jeffress JA, Chaplin MS, Blackwood DJ, Carder DA, Kamolnick T, Todd MA, Ridgway SH (2011) Observation and analysis of sonar signal generation in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): evidence for two sonar sources. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 407:81-96.

Finneran JJ, Mulsow J, Schlundt C, Houser DS (2011) Dolphin and sea lion auditory evoked potentials in response to single and multiple swept amplitude tones Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130: 1038-1048.

Mulsow J, Finneran JJ, Houser, DS (2011) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) aerial hearing sensitivity measured using auditory steady-state response and psychophysical methods. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129: 2298-2306.

Schecklman S, Houser D, Cross M, Hernandez D,00 Siderius M (2011) Comparison of methods used for computing the impact of sound on the marine environment. Marine Environmental Research 71: 342-350.

Schlundt C, Dear RL, Houser DS, Bowles AE, Reidarson T, Finneran JJ (2011) Auditory evoked potentials in two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129: 1111-1116.

Starkhammar J, Moore PW, Talmadge L, Houser DS (2011) Frequency-dependent variation in the 2-dimensional beam pattern of an echolocating dolphin. Biology Letters 7: 836-839.

Au WWL, Houser DS, Finneran JJ, Lee W-J, Talmadge LA, Moore PW (2010) The acoustic field on the forehead of echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128: 1426-1434.

Finneran JJ, Houser DS, Moore P, Branstetter B, Trickey J, Ridgway S (2010) A method to enable a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to echolocate while out of water. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128: 1483-1489.

Houser DS, Moore PW, Johnson S, Lutmerding B, Branstetter B, Ridgway SH, Trickey J, Finneran JJ, Jensen, Hoh C (2010) Relationship of blood flow and metabolism to acoustic processing centers of the dolphin brain. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128: 1460-1466.

Pailhas Y, Capus C, Brown K, Moore P (2010) Analysis and classification of broadband echoes using bio-inspired dolphin pulses. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 127: 3809-3820.

Trickey JS, Branstetter BK, Finneran JJ (2010) Auditory masking of a 10 kHz tone with environmental, comodulated, and Gaussian noise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128: 3799-3804

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Champagne, C. D., Boaz, S. M., Fowler, M. A., Houser, D. S., Costa, D. P. and Crocker, D. E.  2013.  A profile of carbohydrate metabolites in the fasting northern elephant seal.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D.  8:141-151.

Costa, D. P., Houser, D. S. and Crocker, D. E.  2013.  “Fundamentals of Water Relations and Thermoregulation in Animals.”  In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003216.pub2.

Crocker, D. E., Fowler, M. A., Champagne, C. D., Vanderlugt, V. L. and Houser, D. S.  2013.  Metabolic response to a glucagon challenge varies with adiposity and life-history stage in fasting northern elephant seals.  General and Comparative Endocrinology.  195: 99-106.

Hayes, S. A., Teutschel, N. M., Michel, C J., Champagne, C., Robinson, P. W., Fowler, M., Yack, T., Mellinger, D. K., Simmons, S., Costa, D. P., and MacFarlane, R. B.  2013.  Mobile receivers: releasing the mooring to ‘see’ where fish go.  Environmental Biology of Fishes.  96:189-201.

Houser, D. S., Champagne, C. D. and Crocker, D. E.  2013.  A non-traditional model of the metabolic syndrome: the adaptive significance of insulin resistance in fasting-adapted seals.  Frontiers in Endocrinology. 4: 164.  doi: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00164.

Tavoni, S. K., Champagne, C. D., Houser, D. S. and Crocker, D. E.  2013.  Lactate Flux and gluconeogenesis in fasting, weaned northern elephant seals. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology.  183(4): 537-546.

Tift, M. S., Ranalli, E. C., Houser, D. S., Ortiz, R. M. and Crocker, D. E.  2013.  Development enhances hypometabolism in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris).  Functional Ecology.  Doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12111

Champagne C, Crocker D, Fowler M, Houser D (In Press) Fasting Physiology of the Pinnipeds: the challenges of fasting while maintaining high energy expenditure and nutrient delivery for lactation. In: The Comparative Physiology of Fasting and Starvation.

Crocker DE, Houser DS, Webb PM (In Press) Impact of body reserves on energy expenditure, water flux, and mating success in breeding male northern elephant seals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Kelso, EJ, Champagne CD, Tift MS, Houser DS, Crocker DE (In Press) Sex differences in fuel use and metabolism during development in fasting juvenile northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology.

Boaz SM, Champagne CD, Fowler MA, Houser DS, Crocker DE (2012) Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 161: 114-121.

Crocker DE, Ortiz RM, Houser DS, Webb PM, Costa, DP. (2012) Hormone and metabolite changes associated with extended breeding fasts in male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 161: 388-394.

Habran S, Debier C, Crocker DE, Houser DS, Dasa K (2011) Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period. Environmental Pollution 159: 2523-2529.

Hooker SK, Fahlman, A, Moore MJ, Aguilar de Soto N, Bernaldo de Quirós Y, Brubakk AO, Costa DP, Costidis AM, Dennison S, Falke KJ, Fernandez A, Ferrigno M, Fitz-Clarke JR, Garner MM, Houser DS, Jepson PD, Ketten DR, Kvadsheim PH, Madsen PT, Pollock NW, Torstein DS, Rowles TK, Simmons SE, Van Bonn W, Weathersby PK, Weise MJ, Williams TM, Tyack PL (2011) Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Houser DS, Yeates LC, Crocker DE (2011) Cold stress induces an adrenocortical response in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42: 565-571.

Madsen PT, Jensen FH, Carder D, Ridgway S (2011) Dolphin whistles: a functional misnomer revealed by heliox breathing. Biology Letters 8:211-213.

Ridgway SH (2011) Neural time and movement time in choice of whistle or pulse burst responses to different auditory stimuli by dolphins. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129:1073-1080.

Tift MS, Houser DS, Crocker DE (2011) High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Comparative Biochemisty and Physiology – Part B 159: 214-219.

Deakos MH, Branstetter BK, Mazzuca L, Fertl D, Mobley JR (2010) Two unusual interactions between a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian waters. Marine Mammal Science 36: 121-128.

Habran S, Debier C, Crocker DE, Houser DS, Lepoint G, Bouquegneau J-M, Das K (2010) Gestation and lactation in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris): Effects on stable isotope ratios in blood, milk and blubber. Marine Mammal Science 26(4):880-895.

Houser DS, Finneran JJ, Ridgway SH (2010) Research with Navy Marine Mammals benefits animal care, conservation and biology. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 23: 249-268.

Johnson G, Frantzis A, Johnson C, Alexiandou V, Ridgway S, Madsen PT (2010) Evidence that sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) suckle through their mouth. Marine Mammal Science 26:990-996.

Norris AL, Houser DS, Crocker DE (2010) Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 4205-4212.

Oelschläger HHA, Ridgway SH, Knauth M (2010) Cetacean Brain Evolution: Dwarf Sperm Whale (Kogia sima) and Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) – An Investigation with High-Resolution 3D MRI. Brain Behav Evol 75:33-62.

(2010) Ridgway, Sam. Being “there” for surprises and delights in cetacean and pinniped biology. Marine Mammal Science. 26:761-786.

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Diaz MA, Bik EM, Carlin KP, Venn-Watson SK, Jensen ED, Jones SE, Gaston EP, Relman DA, Versalovic J (2013) Identification of Lactobacillus Strains with Probiotic Features from the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Applied Microbiology 115(4):1037-1051.

Neely BA, Carlin KP, Arthur JM, McFee WE, Janech MG (2013) Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon. Front Endocrinol 4:132. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00132.

Smith CR, Jensen ED, Blankenship BA, Greenberg M, D’Agostini DA, Pretorius DH, Saenz NC, Noll N, Venn-Watson SK (2013) Fetal Omphalocele In A Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(1): 87–92.

Venn-Watson S, Carlin K, Andrews GA, Chavey PS, Mazzaro L (2013) Associations of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin with inflammation and glucose in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) J Comp Clin Path DOI: 10.1007/s00580-013-1738-0.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Jensen ED, Rowles T. (2013) Assessing the potential health impacts of the 2003 and 2007 firestorms on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in San Diego Bay. Inhal Toxicol 25:481-491.

Yeates L, Carlin KP, Baird M, Venn-Watson S, Ridgway S (2013) Nitric oxide in the breath of bottlenose dolphins: effects of breath hold duration, feeding, and lung disease. Mar Mamm Sci DOI: 10.1111/mms.12037.

Johnson SP, Catania JM, Harman RJ, Jensen ED (2012) Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Collection and Characterization in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Stem Cells and Development 21(16):2949-2957.

Mazzaro LM, Johnson SP, Fair PA, Bossart G, Carlin KP, Jensen ED, Smith CR, Andrews GA, Chavey PS, Venn-Watson S (2012) Iron indices among bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): identifying populations at risk for iron overload. Comp Med 62:508-515.

Meegan J, Romano T, Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Sidor I, Jensen ED, Van Bonn WG, Pugh R, Ficht T, Adams G, Dunn JL (2012) Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected with Brucella sp. using a newly developed dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Dis Aquat Org 102:73-85.

Neely BA, Soper JL, Greig DJ, Carlin KP, Favre EG, Gulland FM, Almeida JS, Janech MG (2012) Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Proteome Science 10:18.

Smith CR, Solano M, Lutmerding BA, Johnson SP, Meegan JM, Le-Bert CR, Emory-Gomez F, Cassle S, Carlin K, Jensen ED (2012) Pulmonary ultrasound findings in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus population. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 101(3):243-255.

Venn-Watson S, Benham C, Carlin K, DeRienzo D, St. Leger J (2012) Hemochromatosis and fatty liver disease: building evidence for insulin resistance in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(3):S35-S47.

Venn-Watson S, Benham C, Gulland FMD, Smith CR, St. Leger J, Yochem P, Nollens H, Saliki JT, Colegrove K, Wellehan JFX, Rivera R (2012) Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): association with juvenile strandings and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Vet Research 43:85.

Venn-Watson S, Daniels R, Smith C (2012) Thirty year retrospective evaluation of pneumonia in a bottlenose dolphin population. Dis Aquat Org 99:237-242.

Dold C, Ridgway S (2011) Cetaceans. In: Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. 2nd edition, Eds: G. West, D. Heard and N. Caulkett. Blackwell Publishing. Ames, Iowa.

Venn-Watson S, Carlin K, Ridgway S (2011) Dolphins as animal models for type 2 diabetes: Sustained, postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Journal of General and Comparative Endocrinology 170:193-199.

Venn-Watson S, Jensen ED, Ridgway S (2011) Population health indicators of the Navy Marine Mammal Program bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population, 1988-2007. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 238: 356-360.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Gomez F, Jensen ED (2011) Physiology of aging among healthy, older bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): comparisons with aging humans. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 181:667-680.

Venn-Watson S, Stamper A, Rowles T (2011) Thinking outside the terrestrial box: how high-priority, emerging, and zoonotic marine mammal pathogens reflect those of human pathogens. EcoHealth 7:S26.

Wellehan JFX, Rivera R, Archer LL, Benham C, JK Muller, KM Colegrove, FMD Gulland, JA St. Leger, S Venn-Watson, HH Nollens (2011) Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora. Infections, Genetics and Evolution 11:987-996.

Ridgway S, Venn-Watson S (2010) Effects of fresh and seawater ingestion on osmoregulation in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Journal of Comparative Physiology B 180:563-576.

Rivera R, Nollens HH, Venn-Watson S, Gulland FMD, Wellehan FX (2010) Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals. Journal of General Virology 91:166-173.

Sweeney JC, Stone R, Campbell M, McBain J, St. Leger J, Xitco M, Jensen ED, Ridgway S (2010) Comparative survivability of Tursiops neonates from three U.S. institutions for the decades 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Aquatic Mammals 36:248-261.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Johnson S, Daniels R, Townsend F (2010) Clinical relevance of urate nephrolithiasis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 89:167-177.

Venn-Watson S, Townsend FI, Daniels R, Sweeney J, McBain J, Klatsky L, Hicks C, Staggs L, Rowles T, Schwacke L, Wells RS, Smith CR (2010) Hypocitraturia in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Assessing a potential risk factor for urate nephrolithiasis. Comparative Medicine 60:149-153.

Wellehan JFX, Yu Fahong, Venn-Watson S, Jensen E, Smith C, Farmerie WB, Nollens HH (2010) Characterization of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus populations using pyrosequencing-based methods. Infections, Genetics and Evolution 10:254-260.

Johnson SP, Venn-Watson S, Cassle SE, Jensen ED, Smith CR, Ridgway SH (2009) Use of phlebotomy treatment in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins with iron overload. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 235:194-200.

Nollens HH, Rivera R, Palacios G, Wellehan JFX, Saliki JT, Caseltine SL, Smith CR, Jensen ED, Hui J, Lipkin WI, Yochem PK, Wells RS, St. Leger J, Venn-Watson S (2009) New recognition of Enterovirus infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Microbiolgy 139:170-175.

Ruiz CL, Nollens HH, Venn-Watson S, Green LG, Wells RS, Walsh MT, Nolan EC, McBain JF, Jacobson ER (2009) Baseline circulating immunoglobulin G levels in managed collection and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Development & Comparative Immunology 33:449-455.

Nollens HH, Wellehan JF, Saliki JT, Caseltine SL, Jensen ED, Van Bonn W, Venn-Watson S (2008) Characterization of a parainfluenza virus isolated from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Microbiology 128(3-4):231-42.

Sorensen K, Venn-Watson S, Ridgway S (2008) Association of trace elements with liver function in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44: 304-317.

Venn-Watson S, Rivera R, Smith CR, Saliki JT, Caseltine S, St Leger J, Yochem P, Wells RS, Nollens H (2008) Exposure to Novel Parainfluenza Virus and Clinical Relevance in 2 Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14(3):397-405.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Jensen ED (2008) Primary bacterial pathogens in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus: needles in haystacks of commensal and environmental microbes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 79:87-93.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Jensen E (2008) Clinical relevance of elevated transaminases in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44: 318-330.

Venn-Watson S, Smith CR, Dold C, Ridgway SH (2008) Use of a serum-based glomerular filtration rate prediction equation to assess renal function by age, sex, fasting, and health status in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Marine Mammal Science 24 (1) , 71–80.

Venn-Watson S, Ridgway SH (2007) Big brains and blood glucose: Common ground for diabetes mellitus in humans and healthy dolphins. Comparative Medicine 57(4):390-5.

Venn-Watson S, Jensen ED, Ridgway SH (2007) Effects of age and sex on clinicopathologic reference ranges in a healthy managed Atlantic bottlenose dolphin population. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 231(4):596-601.

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Houser, DS and Moore, PW. (2014) Report on the Current Status and Future of Underwater Hearing Research. Report # NMMF-001-14.

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